Mortars are classified into following types depending on binding materials used, building materials, nature of applications and density of mortar.
Classification Of Mortars:
Classification Based on Types of Binding Material:
Mortars are classified into following depending on binding materials used for bonding.
Binding materials can be lime, cement, surkhi, fly ash etc.
1. Lime Mortar:
- Lime mortar is mortar in which lime (hydraulic lime or fat lime) is used as binding material in combination with sand and water.
- Basically, fat lime and hydraulic lime is used in lime mortars.
- Fat lime mortar is used commonly and for damp situations hydraulic lime mortar is used
- Lime mortar is ancient type of mortar and widely used in historic structures along with stones.
2. Cement Mortar:
- In this type of mortar cement is used as binding material along with fine aggregate and water.
- Portland cement is mostly used in plastering, brickworks, PCC, pointing etc.
- For special purpose of cement mortar, special types of cement may be used.
- This is modern type of mortar commonly used in construction industry.
3. Surkhi Mortar
- This is basic type of mortar in which surkhi (combination of crushed burnt bricks and lime) is mixed with fine aggregates and water.
- As it consists of crushed burnt bricks, the colour of mortar is little bit red in colour.
- The percentage of lime and crushed burnt bricks is depend upon the nature of work in which it is used.
- This is mostly used in foundation works.
- Note: Surkhi mortar can’t use along with cement as it is reactive with cement and can be harmful for construction
2. Classification Based on Types Of Building Material
1. Gypsum Mortars:
- In this type of mortar Gypsum is used as binding materials.
- This is very rarely used mortars.
- This type of mortar is used in plasters only. (Internal plasters only, as gypsum is having toxic relation with water and can not be used as external plastering)
2. Gauged Mortars:
- This type of mortar is prepared by mixing cement and lime together.
- As it consists of lime and cement together, it is denser, stronger and durable than ordinary lime mortars.
- The ratio of lime and cement is depended on the purpose of its use.
3. Composite Mortars:
- In this type of mortar, more than one binding material is used.
- For example, surkhi lime water. Surkhi lime sand mortar, cement lime mortar, cement clay mortar.
- This types of mortar is used according to the nature of the works.
3. Classification Based on Nature of Application
1. Brick Laying or Masonry Mortar:
Mortar is called brick laying mortar or masonary mortar when its mainly used in brick masonary as filler in joints.
2. Finishing Mortars or Plasters:
Mortar is called Finishing mortar or plaster mortar when its mainly used as plastering materials.
4. Based On Density of Mortar
1. Heavy Mortars:
2. Light Weight Mortars:
- In this type of mortar, mortar density is always greater than 1500 kg/m3
- Fine aggregates used in heavy mortar is derived from heavy quartz.
- Heavy mortars can be used in foundation and load bearing structures.
- The heavy mortar of bulk density greater than 2000 kg/m3 can be termed as X rays shielding mortars.
- In this type of mortar, mortar density is always less than 1500 kg/m3
- Fine aggregates used in light weight mortar is derived from poor quartz, pumice stone, blast furnace slag.
- Light weight mortars can be used in structure where light elements are required.
- Special type of Light weight mortars – Bulk Density – 600 – 1000 kg/m3 – for making sound proof ceiling and walls.
Rather than this there are also many special types of mortars are there.
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